Hootie & the Blowfish

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Hootie & the Blowfish
The band in 1998, pictured left to right: Sonefeld (behind drum kit), Felber, Rucker, and Bryan.
The band in 1998, pictured left to right: Sonefeld (behind drum kit), Felber, Rucker, and Bryan.
Background information
OriginColumbia, South Carolina, U.S.
Genres
Years active
  • 1986–2008
  • 2018–present
Labels
Members
Past members
  • Brantley Smith
Websitehootie.com

Hootie & the Blowfish are an American rock band that were formed in Columbia, South Carolina, in 1986. The band's lineup for most of its existence has been the quartet of Darius Rucker, Mark Bryan, Dean Felber, and Jim Sonefeld. The band went on hiatus in 2008 until they announced plans for a full reunion tour in 2019 and released their first new studio album in fourteen years, Imperfect Circle.

As of 2019, Hootie & the Blowfish had won two Grammy Awards, had landed sixteen singles on various Billboard singles charts, and had recorded six studio albums. The band's debut album, Cracked Rear View (1994), is the 19th-best-selling album of all time in the United States and was certified platinum 21 times. The band is known for its three Top 10 singles: "Hold My Hand" (1994), "Let Her Cry" (1994), and "Only Wanna Be with You" (1995). The band is also popular in Canada, having had three number-one singles in that country.[1]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

Darius Rucker and Mark Bryan met in Columbia, South Carolina, in the mid-1980s when they were both freshmen at the University of South Carolina.[2] Bryan, a guitar player, heard Rucker singing in the showers of the dorm they shared and was impressed by his vocal ability. The pair began playing cover tunes as the Wolf Brothers.

Eventually they collaborated with bassist Dean Felber, a former high school bandmate of Bryan's, and Brantley Smith, a drummer. In 1986, they adopted the name Hootie & the Blowfish, a conjunction of the nicknames of two of their college friends.[3] The band is routinely featured in articles and polls about badly-named bands.[4][5] Rucker is often mistaken as being the "Hootie" in the band's name.[6] Smith left the group after finishing college to pursue music ministry, but he has made scattered guest appearances with the band (he played cello on their MTV Unplugged performance in 1996, and played drums at Gruene Hall in Gruene, Texas, on June 27, 2008). Smith was replaced by Jim "Soni" Sonefeld. The band's lineup has remained the same ever since.

The band independently released two cassette demo EPs in 1991 and 1992.[citation needed] In 1993, they pressed 50,000 copies of a self-released EP, Kootchypop. They were signed to Atlantic Records in August 1993, after being discovered by Atlantic A&R representative Tim Sommer, a former music journalist and member of the art rock band Hugo Largo.[7] Sommer recalled that other record labels were uninterested in signing Hootie & The Blowfish because their sound was radically different from the grunge music that was popular at the time.[7]

1994–1995: Cracked Rear View and mainstream success[edit]

Their mainstream debut album was Cracked Rear View (1994). Released in July 1994, the album's popularity grew after its release, becoming the best-selling album of 1995, and was one of the fastest-selling debut albums of all time. The album, which was certified platinum in the United States in January 1995 and incrementally rose to 12× platinum by January 1996 and 16× platinum by March 1999. In May 2019, the certifications level was updated from 16× platinum to 21× platinum.

The album featured four hits, "Hold My Hand" (U.S. No. 10), "Let Her Cry" (U.S. No. 9), "Only Wanna Be with You" (U.S. No. 6), and "Time" (U.S. No. 14).[8] The album's last single, "Drowning", was not as successful as its predecessors, peaking only on the Mainstream Rock chart. In 1995, Hootie & the Blowfish and Bob Dylan reached an out-of-court settlement for the group's unauthorized use of Dylan's lyrics in their song "Only Wanna Be with You".[9] Miami Dolphins' Hall of Fame quarterback Dan Marino appeared along with several other athletes in the band's video for the song "Only Wanna Be with You".[10]

1996–1997: Fairweather Johnson and promotional singles[edit]

In 1995, Hootie & the Blowfish contributed the song "Hey, Hey, What Can I Do" to the Encomium tribute album to Led Zeppelin. Their cover of Canadian group 54-40's "I Go Blind", released on the soundtrack to the television series Friends in 1995, did not appear on Cracked Rear View or Fairweather Johnson, but became a hit on radio in 1996 after three singles from Fairweather Johnson had been released. Both "Hey, Hey, What Can I Do" and "I Go Blind" were later released on the compilation Scattered, Smothered and Covered.

On February 28, 1996, at the 38th Annual Grammy Awards, Hootie & the Blowfish won the Grammy for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal (for the single "Let Her Cry") and the Grammy for "Best New Artist".[11][12][13] The band appeared on MTV Unplugged on the eve of the release of their second album, Fairweather Johnson (1996). The album contained the hit single "Old Man and Me" (U.S. No. 13), and sold four million copies in the United States.

1998–2008: Middle years[edit]

The band onstage
The band performing for North Carolina Army National Guard (NCARNG) Soldiers and their family members during the NCARNG Welcome Home Celebration Day at the RBC Center, Raleigh, N.C., on June 26, 2005

In 1998, the band performed on Frank Wildhorn's concept album of the musical The Civil War. Hootie & the Blowfish released their third studio album, Musical Chairs, on September 15, 1998. It spawned the singles "I Will Wait" and "Only Lonely".[14]

The group covered the 1968 Orpheus hit "Can't Find the Time" for the soundtrack of the Jim Carrey movie Me, Myself & Irene (2000). The song's writer, Bruce Arnold, traded verses with Darius on several occasions when the band played live on the West Coast. The band kept to an extensive touring schedule, including an annual New Year's Eve show at Silverton Las Vegas (formerly known as Boomtown Las Vegas) in Enterprise, Nevada.

The band released a B-sides and rarities compilation titled Scattered, Smothered and Covered (2000). This album is named in tribute of Waffle House, a popular Southern chain of all-night diners. Specifically, the title refers to an order of hash browns—shredded potatoes scattered on the grill, smothered with diced onions and covered with melted cheese.[15]

In 2003, the band released a self-titled album.

In 2005, the band released Looking for Lucky.

2008–2018: Hiatus and solo work[edit]

In 2008, Rucker announced in an AOL Sessions interview that the band would go on hiatus for several years so that Rucker could pursue a solo career as a country music performer. Rucker confirmed that the band would still perform their scheduled charity concerts, but added that they would not record or tour.[16] Rucker later clarified that the band was not splitting up.[17]

In 2009, Hootie & the Blowfish performed live in a ballet which chronicled their rise and success in the 1990s.[18]

Rucker went on to record the solo albums Learn to Live, Charleston, SC 1966 True Believers, Home for the Holidays and Southern Style.

The band reunited for a one-time performance on the Late Show with David Letterman in the run-up to Letterman's retirement from the show in May 2015. In August 2015, Darius Rucker said on The Today Show that the band members were working on new songs and would record a new album when they had enough material.[19]

In 2015, the Irish band Music for Dead Birds released a song titled 'Hooty and the Blowfish', a slight misspelling of the group's name.[20][clarification needed]

2019–present: New music and tour[edit]

On December 3, 2018, the band announced the 44-city Group Therapy Tour with Barenaked Ladies in 2019 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the release of Cracked Rear View. The tour began on May 30, 2019, in Virginia Beach and concluded on September 13 in their hometown of Columbia, South Carolina. They also signed a new record deal with UMG Nashville."[21][22]

The band's sixth studio album, Imperfect Circle, was released on November 1, 2019.[23]

In April 2020, the band released a cover version of R.E.M.'s "Losing My Religion".[24]

Record label[edit]

In 1996, Hootie & the Blowfish started their own record label, Breaking Records, as a subsidiary of Atlantic. They had planned to focus on signing local Carolina acts. Edwin McCain and Cravin' Melon were associated with the label at one point but did not release any material on it. The Meat Puppets, Jump, Little Children, Virginwool, Treadmill Trackstar and Treehouse released one album each on Breaking Records. The label folded in 2000.

Charity work[edit]

Hootie & the Blowfish have become known for their charity work. The entire band and crew traveled to New Orleans for five days of building houses in Musicians' Village, on October 16–20, 2006.[25] The band's members are avid golfers, and have sponsored the annual spring Monday After the Masters Celebrity Pro-Am Golf Tournament, benefiting local charities, since 1995.[26]

Hootie & the Blowfish toured through the Middle East and Europe supporting American troops during a USO tour. On December 5, 1998, Darius Rucker broke into an a cappella solo of the US National Anthem during the lowering of colors on board USS Enterprise (CVN-65), which was docked in Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates. The band then played an extended concert for crew members of the aircraft carrier.[27]

From 2005 to 2009, Hootie & the Blowfish performed at the Animal Mission's 'Party Animals' silent auction and concert to benefit the shelter animals in Columbia, South Carolina. Each year the event raised over $100,000 and allowed the organization to provide a free spay/neuter program for the Southern community's pets. On October 18, 2008, Hootie & the Blowfish reunited to do a show at Incirlik Air Base in Turkey.

The band is a member of the Canadian charity Artists Against Racism and has worked with them on awareness campaigns like TV PSAs.[28]

Musical style[edit]

Contrasting with the sound of their grunge contemporaries, the band's music was described as "a mainstream pop variation of blues rock" with "equal parts of jam band grooves and MOR pop."[29][30] The band's sound was also described as alternative rock,[31][32][33][34] soft rock,[35] roots rock,[36] heartland rock,[37] country rock,[38] blues rock,[39] and college rock.[40]

Band members[edit]

The band onstage
Hootie and the Blowfish with Peter Holsapple (center, playing mandolin) in 2004

Current members

  • Darius Rucker – lead vocals, rhythm guitar (1986–2008, 2018–present)
  • Mark Bryan – lead guitar, backing vocals, piano (1986–2008, 2018–present)
  • Dean Felber – bass guitar, backing vocals, piano (1986–2008, 2018–present)
  • Jim Sonefeld – drums, percussion, backing vocals, rhythm guitar (1989–2008, 2018–present)

Current touring musicians

  • Gary Greene – percussion, drums, piano, banjo, backing vocals (1995–2000, 2001–2008, 2019–present)
  • Garry Murray – banjo, mandolin, fiddle, additional guitars, backing vocals (2019–present)
  • Lee Turner - keyboards, mandolin, accordion, additional guitars, backing vocals (2022-present)

Former members

  • Brantley Smith – drums (1986–1989)

Former touring musicians

Discography[edit]

Studio albums[edit]

Title Album details Peak chart positions Certifications
(sales threshold)
US
[41]
US Indie
[42]
AUS
[43]
CAN
[44]
GER
[45]
NL
[46]
NZ
[47]
SWE
[48]
SWI
[49]
UK
[50]
Cracked Rear View
  • Release date: July 5, 1994
  • Label: Atlantic
1 7 1 45 1 12
Fairweather Johnson
  • Release date: April 23, 1996
  • Label: Atlantic
1 12 6 41 37 6 36 37 9
Musical Chairs
  • Release date: September 15, 1998
  • Label: Atlantic
4 54 27 72 20 15
Hootie & the Blowfish
  • Release date: March 4, 2003
  • Label: Atlantic
46 161
Looking for Lucky
  • Release date: August 9, 2005
  • Label: Vanguard
47 4
Imperfect Circle 26 [A] 100
"—" denotes releases that did not chart

Extended plays[edit]

Compilation albums[edit]

Title Album details Peak chart
positions
US
[2]
US Indie
[42]
Scattered, Smothered and Covered
  • Release date: October 24, 2000
  • Label: Atlantic
71
The Best of Hootie & the Blowfish: 1993–2003
  • Release date: March 2, 2004
  • Label: Atlantic/Rhino
62
Live in Charleston
  • Release date: August 8, 2006
  • Label: Vanguard
47
"—" denotes releases that did not chart

Singles[edit]

Title Year Peak chart positions Certifications Album
US
[2]
US Rock
[58]
US AC
[59]
US Adult
[60]
US
Pop

[61]
AUS
[43]
CAN
[1]
GER
[62]
ICE
[63]
NZ
[64]
SCO
[65]
UK
[50]
"Hold My Hand" 1994 10 4 6 25 2 70 36 37 27 50 Cracked Rear View
"Let Her Cry" 9 9 6 16 2 4 2 78 4 19 62 75
"Only Wanna Be with You" 1995 6 2 3 2 1 40 1 65 4 17 83 85
"Hannah Jane"[B] 23
"Time" 14 26 4 1 5 1 9 35
"Hey, Hey, What Can I Do"[C] 15 62 Encomium: a Tribute to Led Zeppelin
"Drowning" 21 Cracked Rear View
"Old Man & Me (When I Get to Heaven)" 1996 13 6 18 4 5 60 1 75 8 41 53 57 Fairweather Johnson
"Tucker's Town" 38 29 24 12 15 2 20 92 77
"I Go Blind"[D] [E] 22 2 17 13 Friends Original TV Soundtrack
"Sad Caper" [F] 26 33 32 Fairweather Johnson
"I Will Wait" 1998 [G] 28 3 16 7 42 57 Musical Chairs
"Only Lonely" 1999 25 29 20 169
"Wishing"
"Innocence" 2003 25 24 Hootie & the Blowfish
"It's Alright"
"Goodbye Girl" 24 The Best of Hootie & the Blowfish
"One Love" 2005 5 20 Looking for Lucky
"Get Out of My Mind" 2006 17
"Hold On"[68] 2019 Imperfect Circle
"Miss California"
"Losing My Religion" 2020
"—" denotes releases that did not chart

Music videos[edit]

Title Year Director
"Hold My Hand" 1994 Adolfo Doring
"Let Her Cry"
"Only Wanna Be with You" 1995 Frank Sacramento
"Time"
"Old Man and Me (When I Get to Heaven)" 1996 Dan Winters
"Tucker's Town" Greg Masuak
"I Will Wait" 1998 Nigel Dick
"Hold On" 2019

Awards and nominations[edit]

American Music Award[edit]

The American Music Award is an annual American music awards show.

Year Nominee / work Award Result
1996 Hootie & the Blowfish Artist of the Year Nominated
Favorite Pop/Rock Band/Duo/Group Nominated
Favorite Pop/Rock New Artist Won
Favorite Adult Contemporary Artist Nominated
Cracked Rear View Favorite Pop/Rock Album Nominated
1997 Hootie & the Blowfish Favorite Pop/Rock Band/Duo/Group Won

Grammy Award[edit]

The Grammy Award is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievement in the mainly English-language music industry.

Year Nominee / work Award Result
1996 Hootie & the Blowfish Best New Artist Won
"Let Her Cry" Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals Won

MTV Video Music Award[edit]

The MTV Video Music Award is an award presented by the cable channel MTV to honor the best in the music video medium.

Year Nominee / work Award Result
1995 "Hold My Hand" Best New Artist Won
Viewer's Choice Award Nominated
1996 "Only Wanna Be with You" Best Group Video Nominated

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Imperfect Circle did not enter the ARIA Albums Chart, but peaked at number 24 on the ARIA Digital Album Chart.[57]
  2. ^ "Hannah Jane" was a promotional single.
  3. ^ "Hey, Hey, What Can I Do" was a promotional single.
  4. ^ "I Go Blind" was a promotional single.
  5. ^ "I Go Blind" did not enter the Billboard Hot 100, but peaked at number 13 on the Hot 100 Airplay chart.[67]
  6. ^ "Sad Caper" did not enter the Billboard Hot 100, but peaked at number 74 on the Hot 100 Airplay chart.[67]
  7. ^ "I Will Wait" did not enter the Billboard Hot 100, but peaked at number 18 on the Hot 100 Airplay chart.[67]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "RPM Canada – charts". RPM magazine. Archived from the original on 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2011-04-12.
  2. ^ a b c Bashe, P. R., & George-Warren, H., The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll (Third ed.). New York, Fireside, 2005, p. 443
  3. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish". hootie.com. Retrieved January 1, 2015. The unlikely moniker was borrowed from the nicknames of two college friends.
  4. ^ "The Worst Band Names Ever - NME". Nme.com. 13 January 2012.
  5. ^ Gelfand, Michael (15 March 2010). Strategies for Success: Self-Promotion Secrets for Musicians. Schirmer Trade Books. ISBN 9780857121974 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ "Rock On The Net: Hootie & The Blowfish / Darius Rucker". Rockonthenet.com. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Sommer, Tim (14 July 2016). "My Life in the Bush of Hootie: How I Signed the Biggest Band of 1995". Observer. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  8. ^ Strong, Martin C. (2000). The Great Rock Discography (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Mojo Books. p. 459. ISBN 1-84195-017-3.
  9. ^ Rock Clock Archived 2007-10-01 at the Wayback Machine, November 3. VH1.com. Accessed May 25, 2007.
  10. ^ Hootie and the Blowfish. A Series of Short Trips (DVD). Atlantic, 1996.
  11. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish". Grammy.com.
  12. ^ "CNN - Morrissette, Hootie big Grammy winners". www.cnn.com. February 29, 1996.
  13. ^ "Darius Rucker: My GRAMMY Moment". Billboard.com. January 24, 2014.
  14. ^ "Gettysburg Welcomes Wildhorn's "New" Civil War Musical, For the Glory". Playbill.com.
  15. ^ Hootie & the Blowfish like songs "covered". Archived 2007-03-19 at the Wayback Machine Cnn.com Archive, November 3, 2000. Accessed February 5, 2007.
  16. ^ "Darius Rucker – Hootie Leaves the Blowfish". Contactmusic.com. 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  17. ^ Hootie and the Blowfish to Return in 2009. Alternative Addiction, December 20, 2008.
  18. ^ Believe It or Not, Here's the Hootie Ballet. Archived 2010-08-04 at the Wayback Machine Free Times (Columbia, SC), March 31, 2009, accessed April 17, 2009
  19. ^ "Darius Rucker: Hootie Reunion Will Be 'Real Soon'". Taste of Country.
  20. ^ "Music for Dead birds to open October Citog gigs- Galway Advertiser". Advertiser.ie. 6 October 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  21. ^ Parton, Chris (December 3, 2018). "Hootie and the Blowfish Announce First Tour in More Than a Decade". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  22. ^ Hall, Kristin M. (December 3, 2018). "Rockers Hootie & the Blowfish return with new album, tour". Associated Press. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  23. ^ Feit, Noah (August 8, 2019). "Hootie & the Blowfish to release new album since 2005. Here's how to hear new song". The State.
  24. ^ Shaffer, Claire (April 17, 2020). "Hear Hootie and the Blowfish Cover R.E.M.'s 'Losing My Religion'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  25. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish join Habitat for Humanity in New Orleans build Feature Story". Thecelebritycafe.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  26. ^ "Hootie & The Blowfish Golf Tournament Page". Hootiegolf.com. 2011-04-08. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  27. ^ News Photo, Defense.gov. Retrieved August 2011
  28. ^ "Artists - Artists Against Racism". Artistsagainstracism.org. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  29. ^ Erlewine, Stephen. "Hootie & the Blowfish". Allmusic. Retrieved October 24, 2015.
  30. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish - Live in Charleston". AllMusic. Retrieved October 24, 2015.
  31. ^ Mackey, Brian (August 19, 2010). "Darius Rucker at home in country". Delaware Online. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  32. ^ Tacopino, Joe (25 September 2007). "MATT POND PA: LAST LIGHT". PopMatters. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  33. ^ Sparks, Hannah (February 25, 2021). "Post Malone covers Hootie & the Blowfish hit for Pokémon Day show". New York Post. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  34. ^ New York Magazine: Fall Preview. United States: New York Media, LLC. September 11, 1995. p. 93. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  35. ^ "Hootie and the Blowfish: Southern Comfort". Rolling Stone. 10 August 1995. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  36. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish return to Letterman 20 years after breakthrough performance — watch". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  37. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish perform first ever single 'Hold My Hand' on 'Letterman' – watch". NME. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  38. ^ "7 Reasons Why Hootie Was Country All Along". Rolling Stone. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  39. ^ Danton, Eric (March 6, 2003). "New on Disc". Hartford Courant. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  40. ^ Sommer, Tim. "Hootie & the Blowfish: The Last Great Classic College Rock Band". Inside Hook. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  41. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish Chart History: Billboard 200". Billboard. Retrieved 2019-11-09.
  42. ^ a b "Hootie & the Blowfish Chart History: Independent Albums". Billboard. Retrieved 2019-11-09.
  43. ^ a b Australian (ARIA) chart peaks:
  44. ^ "Results - RPM - Library and Archives Canada". RPM. Archived from the original on 2015-09-26. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  45. ^ "Album Search: Hootie & The Blowfish" (in German). Media Control. Retrieved 2011-07-12.[dead link]
  46. ^ "dutchcharts.nl – Dutch charts portal". dutchcharts.nl. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  47. ^ "charts.nz – New Zealand charts portal". charts.nz. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  48. ^ "swedishcharts.com – Swedish charts portal". swedishcharts.com. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  49. ^ "Die Offizielle Schweizer Hitparade und Music Community". hitparade.ch. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  50. ^ a b "Hootie and the Blowfish | full Official Chart history". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 2019-11-09.
  51. ^ a b c "RIAA – Gold & Platinum – July 18, 2010: Hootie & the Blowfish certified albums". Recording Industry Association of America. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  52. ^ Ryan, Gavin (2011). Australia's Music Charts 1988–2010. Mt. Martha, VIC, Australia: Moonlight Publishing.
  53. ^ a b "BPI search results". British Phonographic Industry. Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  54. ^ "Cracked Rear View". Canadian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved 2011-12-21.[permanent dead link]
  55. ^ "New Zealand Certification - "Cracked Rear View"". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  56. ^ "New Zealand Certification - "Fairweather Johnson"". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  57. ^ "ARIA Australian Top 50 Digital Albums" (PDF). Australian Recording Industry Association. November 11, 2019. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  58. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish Chart History: Mainstream Rock". Billboard. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  59. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish Chart History: Adult Contemporary". Billboard. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  60. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish Chart History: Adult Pop Songs". Billboard. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  61. ^ "Hootie & the Blowfish Chart History: Pop Songs". Billboard. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  62. ^ "Song Search: Hootie & the Blowfish" (in German). Media Control. Retrieved 2011-07-12.[dead link]
  63. ^ Peak chart positions for singles on the Icelandic Singles Chart (Íslenski Listinn):
  64. ^ "charts.nz – New Zealand charts portal". charts.nz. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  65. ^ Peaks in Scotland:
  66. ^ "ARIA Top 50 Singles for 1995". Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  67. ^ a b c "Airplay". Billboard. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  68. ^ Jon Freeman (October 18, 2019). "Hear Hootie and the Blowfish's Optimistic New Song 'Hold On'". Rolling Stone Country. Retrieved October 20, 2019.

External links[edit]